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History of Hindustani Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words.
The Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian.
This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar inestablishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide that was formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence though there are Hindu poets who continue to write in Urdu to this day, with post-independence examples including Gopi Chand Narang and Gulzar.
There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, and Hindi of Persian loanwords, and new vocabulary draws primarily from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi. English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language.
Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from regional languages, thus allowing speakers of the language in Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily and giving the language a decidedly Pakistani flavour.
Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni Deccan of South India, and Khariboli of the Punjab region.
The syntax grammarmorphologyand the core vocabulary are essentially identical. Thus linguists usually count them as one single language and contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio-political reasons. Despite this, Urdu was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other.
Urdu is therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as KarachiLahoreOkara DistrictSialkotRawalpindiIslamabadMultanFaisalabadHyderabadPeshawarQuettaJhangSargodha and Skardu. For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems.
This has produced millions of Urdu speakers from people whose native language is one of the other languages of Pakistanwho can read and write only Urdu. It is absorbing many words from the regional languages of Pakistan. This variation of Urdu is sometimes referred to as Pakistani Urdu.
The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary. There are millions of Pakistanis whose native language is not Urdu, but because they have studied in Urdu medium schools, they can read and write Urdu along with their native language.
Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins such as PashtunTajikUzbekHazarviand Turkmen who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu.
With such a large number of people s speaking Urdu, the language has acquired a peculiar Pakistani flavour further distinguishing it from the Urdu spoken by native speakers and diversifying the language even further. In India, Urdu is spoken in places where there are large Muslim minorities or cities that were bases for Muslim Empires in the past.
Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdu. India has more than 3, Urdu publications, including daily Urdu newspapers. Outside South Asiait is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centres of the Persian Gulf countries.
Urdu is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centres of the United Kingdomthe United StatesCanadaGermanyNorwayand Australia. Along with ArabicUrdu is among the immigrant languages with the most speakers in Catalonia.
In addition to Islam, India was characterized by a number of other religions that represented different spiritual outlooks. Hindi became the distinct register spoken by those who sought to construct a Hindu identity in the face of colonial rule.
Several languages and dialects spoken throughout the regions of Pakistan produced an imminent need for a uniting language. Because Urdu was the symbol of Islamic identity in Northern India, it was selected as the national language for Pakistan.
While Urdu and Islam together played important roles in developing the national identity of Pakistan, disputes in the s particularly those in East Pakistanchallenged the necessity for Urdu as a national symbol and its practicality as the lingua franca.
The significance of Urdu as a national symbol was downplayed by these disputes when English and Bengali were also accepted as official languages in East Pakistan now Bangladesh.
Official status A trilingual signboard in ArabicEnglish and Urdu in the UAE A multilingual New Delhi railway station board Urdu is the national and one of the two official languages of Pakistan, along with English, and is spoken and understood throughout the country, whereas the state-by-state languages languages spoken throughout various regions are the provincial languages.
It is used in educationliteratureoffice and court business. In practice English is used instead of Urdu in the higher echelons of government. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Konkanias well as some vocabulary from ArabicPersian and Chagatai that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu.
Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India. A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states. Code switching Many bilingual or multi-lingual Urdu speakers, being familiar with both Urdu and English, display code-switching referred to as " Urdish " in certain localities and between certain social groups.
On 14 Augustthe Government of Pakistan launched the Ilm Pakistan movement, with a uniform curriculum in Urdish. Ahsan IqbalFederal Minister of Pakistan, said, "Now the government is working on a new curriculum to provide a new medium to the students which will be the combination of both Urdu and English and will name it Urdish.
Further, it is quite easy in a longer conversation to distinguish differences in vocabulary and pronunciation of some Urdu phonemes.The customers and trust each other are our best friends.
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