Sociology Planning a Program of Study Since there are many alternative ways to plan a program, some of which may require careful attention to specific major requirements, students should consult with the School of Social Sciences Undergraduate Student Affairs to design an appropriate program of study. Students who select one of the School majors in their freshman year might begin by taking the one-digit courses required by their major and one of the mathematics sequences listed under Part A of the School requirements.
I am going to borrow these terms in an entirely metaphorical way to name the two fundamental forces in which I live my life as a professor of literature. The strong force is technology, not to be understood as this or that machine, or this or that branch of machinery, but as the entire organized and interdependent ensemble dictating the technicization of everyday life, from politics, economics, and bureaucratic administration, to the media, advertising, fast food, transportation, and tourism.
The technical-experimental state of mind dominates contemporary education, from the earliest grades through the university. Over the past century the technological system has gradually become so intrinsic and all-pervasive that, like the air we breathe or the purloined letter, it often seems invisible.
Either we mystify its presence as in so many Hollywood spectaculrs, or we tend to think of it as neutral, a mere means towards freely chosen ends, and not an end in itself which uses persons as its means. Technology, the strong force, is the central feature of modern life.
The weak force is essentially what I like to teach, literature. These two forces intersect in my daily life at the English department. Let me compare a visit to our departmental office fifteen years ago and one today. Then, there were three secretaries and seven machines typewriters, telephones, a mimeograph.
Now, there are three and a half secretaries and forty-two machines word processors, copiers, printers, scanners, fax machines, portable phones, a microwave —so many machines that the office next door was taken over to house them.
Then, there were faculty gossip and the occasional discussion of literature. Then, with its casual clutter of books and some old dusty plants, the office looked like an academic department. Now, when it no longer looks like itself, it ironically looks like so much else: One morning it reminded me of the Mir Space Station, which by chance I had just seen on the news; technological society does not know the horror of mixing.
These events, I believe, are not unrelated. Technology is above all for use; if you have it, you use it. A recent faculty memorandum came to me via a fax machine from the Senate Office.
It had been beamed up to a satellite a couple of hundred miles above the earth and back again; yet the Senate Office and the English department are next door to each other in the same building.
I asked myself, what earlier forms of communication did such technological overkill replace: Face-to-face contact has been replaced by face-to-machine contact. People who raise the faintest objections to technology are branded as Luddites.
Technology, however, can no longer be understood in terms of single machines; it is the system in which we live and move and have our being. There is no question of "going back. I do not want to evoke pastoral nostalgia or to dream of a lost wholeness: Such indulgence may be compared to reading old travelogues about a lovely country whose face has been scored by modernity.
Yet it may be instructive to trace the recent histories of these strong and weak forces, technology and literature, and their convergence in the present moment, though "convergence" may suggest an equality of opportunity that they do not enjoy. At a time when the humanities have suffered greatly at the hands of technological society, they are more important to our social and ethical life than ever before in human history.
Today the humanities are under attack from many quarters. Far more students take courses in behavioral psychology to learn about interpersonal elations than take courses in Shakespeare or the nineteenth-century novel.
A report in the New York Times 9 October chronicles the drop in foreign language majors from to Latin declined by eight percent, Italian by twelve, French by twenty-five, German by twenty-eight. Philosophy, English, and religious studies have declined steadily since the s. It is sometimes said that the humanities will survive only as a plaything of technocrats or a mere adornment to life.
At best they will be the private delight of the aesthete, the antiquarian, or the bibliophile. Any assessment of the humanities in technological society should refer, if only briefly, to their foundations, to their concepts of freedom and the individual, civitas and humanitas, and to the civilizing mission they have performed during their long history: In short, by whom in the future does society wish to be represented?The evangelical introduction of this program by management led to high rates of participation, influencing employee perceptions of health, fitness, and identity.
and ignore others (extreme sports, toxic environmental exposures). Programs often promote managerial values through disciplinary Theorizing resistance in organization studies.
Extreme Sports: Theorizing participation - A Challenge for Phenomenology - Extreme Sports: Theorizing participation Introduction The phrase ‘Extreme Sport’ has developed into an all-encompassing umbrella term for those activities that are traditionally associated with risk-takers or ‘adrenalin junkies’ (Lambton, ). While extreme motocross and base jumping may be exceptions, the true injury rate for many extreme sports is quite low. A British Journal of Sports Medicine study reported only skateboard injuries requiring medical attention over four years, despite fairly significant participation in the sport. Whether it's winter, spring, summer, or fall, at least one, two or more extreme sports are getting the time and attention of the American sporting public. According to SGMA International's analysis of the current Superstudy® of Sports Participation, extreme sports are so popular that they attract more "players" than some traditional team sports.
Extreme Sports: Theorizing participation - A Challenge for Phenomenology - Extreme Sports: Theorizing participation Introduction The phrase ‘Extreme Sport’ has developed into an all-encompassing umbrella term for those activities that are traditionally associated with risk-takers or ‘adrenalin junkies’ (Lambton, ).
Extreme + Adventure Sports Self-determined and intrinsically motivated Fueled by easy recording and upload technology like GoPro — paired with YouTube and over-the-top broadcasters — interest, participation, and performance levels in action sports are soaring. Indeed, skateboarding, snowboarding and wakeboarding are among the fastest-growing alternative sports in the U.S, according to the 14th annual Super-study of Sports Participation, conducted by ASD.
Why are deadly extreme sports more popular than ever? extreme sports will challenge professional and collegiate team sports for the title of most-watched category of sports content,” the.
Research - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.