Guidance counselor research paper

When Tyler Bennett and Esther Reyes began their freshman year at Achievement First High School in Brooklyn four years ago, Monica Debbeler could tell right away they were destined for success—and that the school was dedicated to bringing the challenging opportunities they needed to them. She has gone above and beyond in her academics in ways no student has before. The program, which is conducted entirely online during the spring and summer months, gives high achievers an outlet in which to channel their passion for learning, while also exposing them to the rigors of college-level research. Since its founding inmore than students from 27 countries have benefitted from the experience.

Guidance counselor research paper

Employer Best Practices I. The Guidance builds on longstanding court decisions and existing guidance documents that the U. The Guidance focuses on employment discrimination based on race and national origin.

Guidance counselor research paper

The Guidance discusses the differences between arrest and conviction records. The fact of an arrest does not establish that criminal conduct has occurred, and an exclusion based on Guidance counselor research paper arrest, in itself, is not job related and consistent with business necessity. However, an employer may make an employment decision based on the conduct underlying an arrest if the conduct makes the individual unfit for the position in question.

In contrast, a conviction record will usually serve as sufficient evidence that a person engaged in particular conduct. In certain circumstances, however, there may be reasons for an employer not to rely on the conviction record alone when making an employment decision. A violation may occur when an employer treats criminal history information differently for different applicants or employees, based on their race or national origin disparate treatment liability.

National data supports a finding that criminal record exclusions have a disparate impact based on race and national origin. The national data provides a basis for the Commission to investigate Title VII disparate impact charges challenging criminal record exclusions. Two circumstances in which the Commission believes employers will consistently meet the "job related and consistent with business necessity" defense are as follows: The employer validates the criminal conduct exclusion for the position in question in light of the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures if there is data or analysis about criminal conduct as related to subsequent work performance or behaviors ; or The employer develops a targeted screen considering at least the nature of the crime, the time elapsed, and the nature of the job the three factors identified by the court in Green v.

Missouri Pacific Railroad, F. Although Title VII does not require individualized assessment in all circumstances, the use of a screen that does not include individualized assessment is more likely to violate Title VII.

State and local laws or regulations are preempted by Title VII if they "purport[] to require or permit the doing of any act which would be an unlawful employment practice" under Title VII. The Guidance concludes with best practices for employers. The Commission intends this document for use by employers considering the use of criminal records in their selection and retention processes; by individuals who suspect that they have been denied jobs or promotions, or have been discharged because of their criminal records; and by EEOC staff who are investigating discrimination charges involving the use of criminal records in employment decisions.

Criminal History Records Criminal history information can be obtained from a wide variety of sources including, but not limited to, the following: Courthouses maintain records relating to criminal charges and convictions, including arraignments, trials, pleas, and other dispositions.

Law enforcement agencies such as state police agencies and corrections agencies may allow the public to access their records, including records of complaints, investigations, arrests, indictments, and periods of incarceration, probation, and parole.

Some government entities maintain publicly available lists of individuals who have been convicted of, or are suspected of having committed, a certain type of crime. Examples of such lists include state and federal sex offender registries and lists of individuals with outstanding warrants.

Most states maintain their own centralized repositories of criminal records, which include records that are submitted by most or all of their criminal justice agencies, including their county courthouses. The III database compiles records from each of the state repositories, as well as records from federal and international criminal justice agencies.

Under FCRA, a CRA generally may not report records of arrests that did not result in entry of a judgment of conviction, where the arrests occurred more than seven years ago. They also may be missing certain types of disposition information, such as updated convictions, sealing or expungement orders, or orders for entry into a diversion program.


Having a criminal record is not listed as a protected basis in Title VII. Title VII liability for employment discrimination is determined using two analytic frameworks: Disparate Treatment Discrimination and Criminal Records A covered employer is liable for violating Title VII when the plaintiff demonstrates that it treated him differently because of his race, national origin, or another protected basis.

Disparate Treatment Based on Race. They have similar educational backgrounds, skills, and work experience. They each pled guilty to charges of possessing and distributing marijuana as high school students, and neither of them had any subsequent contact with the criminal justice system.

After college, they both apply for employment with Office Jobs, Inc. Based on the outcome of the background check, which reveals their drug convictions, an Office Jobs, Inc.

The representative remarked to a co-worker that Office Jobs, Inc. Title VII prohibits "not only decisions driven by racial [or ethnic] animosity, but also decisions infected by stereotyped thinking.

Guidance counselor research paper

Disparate Treatment Based on National Origin. Tad, who is White, and Nelson, who is Latino, are both recent high school graduates with grade point averages above 4. While Nelson has successfully worked full-time for a landscaping company during the summers, Tad only held occasional lawn-mowing and camp-counselor jobs.

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