Received Jul 11; Accepted Jan 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Summary The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers HCWs with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings.
CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings.
Am J Infect Control ; New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed.
Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized. Recommendations concerning related issues e.
Review of the Scientific Data Regarding Hand Hygiene Historical Perspective For generations, handwashing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene 1.
The concept of cleansing hands with an antiseptic agent probably emerged in the early 19th century. As early asa French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odors associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics 2.
In a paper published inthis pharmacist stated that physicians and other persons attending patients with contagious diseases would benefit from moistening their hands with a liquid chloride solution 2.
InIgnaz Semmelweis observed that women whose babies were delivered by students and physicians in the First Clinic at the General Hospital of Vienna consistently had a higher mortality rate than those whose babies were delivered by midwives in the Second Clinic 3. He noted that physicians who went directly from the autopsy suite to the obstetrics ward had a disagreeable odor on their hands despite washing their hands with soap and water upon entering the obstetrics clinic.
He postulated that the puerperal fever that affected so many parturient women was caused by "cadaverous particles" transmitted from the autopsy suite to the obstetrics ward via the hands of students and physicians.
Perhaps because of the known deodorizing effect of chlorine compounds, as of Mayhe insisted that students and physicians clean their hands with a chlorine solution between each patient in the clinic.
The maternal mortality rate in the First Clinic subsequently dropped dramatically and remained low for years. This intervention by Semmelweis represents the first evidence indicating that cleansing heavily contaminated hands with an antiseptic agent between patient contacts may reduce health-care--associated transmission of contagious diseases more effectively than handwashing with plain soap and water.
InOliver Wendell Holmes concluded independently that puerperal fever was spread by the hands of health personnel 1. Although he described measures that could be taken to limit its spread, his recommendations had little impact on obstetric practices at the time.
However, as a result of the seminal studies by Semmelweis and Holmes, handwashing gradually became accepted as one of the most important measures for preventing transmission of pathogens in health-care facilities. Inthe U. Public Health Service produced a training film that demonstrated handwashing techniques recommended for use by health-care workers HCWs 4.
At the time, recommendations directed that personnel wash their hands with soap and water for minutes before and after patient contact. Rinsing hands with an antiseptic agent was believed to be less effective than handwashing and was recommended only in emergencies or in areas where sinks were unavailable.
In andformal written guidelines on handwashing practices in hospitals were published by CDC 5,6. These guidelines recommended handwashing with non-antimicrobial soap between the majority of patient contacts and washing with antimicrobial soap before and after performing invasive procedures or caring for patients at high risk.
Use of waterless antiseptic agents e. Recommended indications for handwashing were similar to those listed in the CDC guidelines. The APIC guideline included more detailed discussion of alcohol-based hand rubs and supported their use in more clinical settings than had been recommended in earlier guidelines.
In andthe Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee HICPAC recommended that either antimicrobial soap or a waterless antiseptic agent be used for cleaning hands upon leaving the rooms of patients with multidrug-resistant pathogens e. These guidelines also provided recommendations for handwashing and hand antisepsis in other clinical settings, including routine patient care.
Recent developments in the field have stimulated a review of the scientific data regarding hand hygiene and the development of new guidelines designed to improve hand-hygiene practices in health-care facilities.The original visual tool for teaching proper handwashing, aseptic techniques, and general infection control.
In this age of concern over infectious diseases, security, and liability, Glo Germ™ is an effective tool to demonstrate handwashing, surface cleaning, hygiene, and containment techniques. Guidelines for clean wound care dressing technique and examples of unacceptable dressing change practice are provided in this article by wound educator, Margaret Heale, RN, MSc, CWOCN.
As a minimum, the "How To" (technique) posters and the "Your 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" poster should be displayed in all clinical areas. 2 "before clean/aseptic procedure" applies immediately prior to donning sterile gloves to insert a central venous catheter.
Questionnaire on hand hygiene and healthcare-associated infections for. Help prevent school absenteeism by creating a handwashing campaign for your school community.
Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Resources for . Aseptic technique is a procedure used by medical staff to prevent the spread of infection. The goal is to reach asepsis, which means an environment that . Hand washing (or handwashing), also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and attheheels.com water and soap is not available, hands can be cleaned with ash instead..
Medical hand hygiene refers to hygiene practices related to medical procedures. Hand washing before administering medicine or medical care can prevent or minimize .