In this adolescent period, Derrida found in the works of philosophers and writers such as RousseauNietzscheand Gide an instrument of revolt against family and society. Derrida received a grant for studies at Harvard Universityand he spent the —57 academic year reading James Joyce 's Ulysses at the Widener Library. During the Algerian War of Independence of —, Derrida asked to teach soldiers' children in lieu of military service, teaching French and English from to
References and Further Reading 1. Introduction The work often considered to constitute the birth of phenomenology is Husserl's Logical Investigations Husserl It contains Husserl's celebrated attack on psychologism, the view that logic can be reduced to psychology; an account of phenomenology as the descriptive study of the structural features of the varieties of experience; and a number of concrete phenomenological analyses, including those of meaning, part-whole relations and intentionality.
Logical Investigations seemed to pursue its agenda against a backdrop of metaphysical realism. In Ideas I Husserlhowever, Husserl presented phenomenology as a form of transcendental idealism.
This apparent move was greeted with hostility from some early admirers of Logical Investigations, such as Adolph Reinach. However, Husserl later claimed that he had always intended to be a transcendental idealist.
In Ideas I Husserl offered a more nuanced account of the intentionality of consciousness, of the distinction between fact and essence and of the phenomenological as opposed to the natural attitude.
Heidegger was an assistant to Husserl who took phenomenology in a rather new direction. Relations between Husserl and Heidegger became strained, partly due to the divisive issue of National Socialism, but also due to significant philosophical differences.
Thus, unlike his early works, Heidegger's later philosophy bears little relation to classical Husserlian phenomenology. Although he published relatively little in his lifetime, Husserl was a prolific writer leaving a large number of manuscripts.
Alongside Heidegger's interpretation of phenomenology, this unpublished work had a decisive influence on the development of French existentialist phenomenology. Taking its lead from Heidegger's account of authentic existence, Sartre's Being and Nothingness Sartre developed a phenomenological account of consciousnessfreedom and concrete human relations that perhaps defines the term "existentialism.
Although none of the philosophers mentioned above can be thought of straightforwardly as classical Husserlian phenomenologists, in each case Husserl sets the phenomenological agenda. This remains the case, with a great deal of the contemporary interest in both phenomenological methodology and phenomenological topics drawing inspiration from Husserl's work.
Accordingly, Husserl's views are the touchstone in the following discussion of the topics, methods and significance of phenomenology. Phenomenological Method Husserlian phenomenology is a discipline to be undertaken according to a strict method.
This method incorporates both the phenomenological and eidetic reductions. Phenomena Phenomenology is, as the word suggests, the science of phenomena. But this just raises the questions: In answering the first question, it is useful to briefly turn to Kant.
On one reading of Kant, appearances are in the mind, mental states of subjects. On another reading, appearances are things as they appear, worldly objects considered in a certain way.
Both of these understandings of the nature of phenomena can be found in the phenomenological literature. However, the most common view is that all of the major phenomenologists construe phenomena in the latter way: They are not mental states but worldly things considered in a certain way.
The Phenomenologists tend, however, to reject Kantian noumena. Also, importantly, it is not to be assumed that the relevant notion of appearing is limited to sensory experience.
Experience or intuition can indeed be sensory but can, at least by Husserl's lights, be understood to encompass a much broader range of phenomena Husserlsec. Thus, for example, although not objects of sensory experience, phenomenology can offer an account of how the number series is given to intuition.
Phenomenology, then, is the study of things as they appear phenomena.
It is also often said to be descriptive rather than explanatory: This can be distinguished from the project of giving, for example, causal or evolutionary explanationswhich would be the job of the natural sciences.
Phenomenological Reduction In ordinary waking experience we take it for granted that the world around us exists independently of both us and our consciousness of it.
This might be put by saying that we share an implicit belief in the independent existence of the world, and that this belief permeates and informs our everyday experience.
Husserl refers to this positing of the world and entities within it as things which transcend our experience of them as "the natural attitude" Husserlsec. In The Idea of Phenomenology, Husserl introduces what he there refers to as "the epistemological reduction," according to which we are asked to supply this positing of a transcendent world with "an index of indifference" Husserl This means that all judgements that posit the independent existence of the world or worldly entities, and all judgements that presuppose such judgements, are to be bracketed and no use is to be made of them in the course of engaging in phenomenological analysis.
Importantly, Husserl claims that all of the empirical sciences posit the independent existence of the world, and so the claims of the sciences must be "put out of play" with no use being made of them by the phenomenologist.
The reduction, then, is that which reveals to us the primary subject matter of phenomenology—the world as given and the givenness of the world; both objects and acts of consciousness.Of the silent trilogy, Earth () is Dovzhenko’s most accessible film but, perhaps for these same reasons, most misunderstood.
In a Brussels’ film jury would vote Earth as one of the great films of all time.
Earth marks a threshold in Dovzhenko’s career emblematic of a turning point in the Ukrainian cultural and political avant-garde - the end of one period and transition to another. May © Copyright by Wolfgang Brauner 1 The method of Husserls phenomenology (Wesensschau [intuition of essences], Epoché, eidetische Variation [eidetic variation]).
In Praise of Philosophy and Other Essays (Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy) [Maurice Merleau-Ponty, John Wild, James M. Edie, John O'Neill] on attheheels.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Book by Merleau-Ponty, Maurice.
Phenomenology. In its central use, the term "phenomenology" names a movement in twentieth century philosophy. A second use of "phenomenology" common in contemporary philosophy names a property of some mental states, the property they have if and only if there is something it is like to be in them.
Books about Heidegger. The Apocalypse of Being The Esoteric Gnosis of Martin Heidegger. Mario Enrique Sacchi, translated by Gabriel Xavier Martinez, South Bend, Indiana, St.
Augustine's Press, Phenomenology Essay Phenomenology is the branch of philosophy that explores phenomena (observable, experiential events) and has principally been the concern of German philosophers and 20th-century French philosophers.