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Odysseus and the SirensUlixes mosaic at the Bardo National Museum in TunisTunisia, 2nd century AD As civilizations around the Mediterranean grew in size and complexity, both their navies and the galleys that made up their numbers became successively larger. The basic design of two or three rows of oars remained the same, but more rowers were added to each oar.
The exact reasons are not known, but are believed to have been caused by addition of more troops and the use of more advanced ranged weapons on ships, such as catapults. The size of the new naval forces also made it difficult to find enough skilled rowers for the one-man-per-oar system of the earliest triremes.
With more than one man per oar, a single rower could set the pace for the others to follow, meaning that more unskilled rowers could be employed.
The ruler Dionysius I of Syracuse ca. Ptolemy II BC is known to have built a large fleet of very large galleys with several experimental designs rowed by everything from 12 up to 40 rows of rowers, though most of these are considered to have been quite impractical. Fleets with large galleys were put in action in conflicts such as the Punic Wars between the Roman republic and Carthagewhich included massive naval battles with hundreds of vessels and tens of thousands of soldiers, seamen and rowers.
In Greek they were referred to as histiokopos "sail-oar-er" to reflect that they relied on both types of propulsion. In Latin they were called actuaria navis "ship that moves" in Latin, stressing that they were capable of making progress regardless of weather conditions.
As an example of the speed and reliability, during an instance of the famous " Carthago delenda est "-speech, Cato the Elder demonstrated the close proximity of the Roman arch enemy Carthage by displaying a fresh fig to his audience that he claimed had been picked in North Africa only three days past.
Other cargoes carried by galleys were honey, cheese, meat and live animals intended for gladiator combat. The Romans had several types of merchant galleys that specialized in various tasks, out of which the actuaria with up to 50 rowers was the most versatile, including the phaselus lit.
Many of these designs continued to be used until the Middle Ages. After Augustus' victory at Actium, most of the Roman fleet was dismantled and burned.
The Roman civil wars were fought mostly by land forces, and from the s until the 4th century AD, no major fleet actions were recorded. During this time, most of the galley crews were disbanded or employed for entertainment purposes in mock battles or in handling the sail-like sun-screens in the larger Roman arenas.
What fleets remained were treated as auxiliaries of the land forces, and galley crewmen themselves called themselves milites, "soldiers", rather than nautae, "sailors". These were named after an Illyrian tribe known by Romans for their sea roving practices, and these smaller craft were based on, or inspired by, their vessels of choice.
The liburnians and other small galleys patrolled the rivers of continental Europe and reached as far as the Baltic, where they were used to fight local uprisings and assist in checking foreign invasions.
The Romans maintained numerous bases around the empire: Few actual galley battles in the provinces are found in records. One action in 70 AD at the unspecified location of the "Island of the Batavians" during the Batavian Rebellion was recorded, and included a trireme as the Roman flagship.
His rule also saw the last major naval battle of the unified Roman Empire before the permanent split into Western and Eastern [later "Byzantine"] Empiresthe battle of Hellespont of Some time after Hellespont, the classical trireme fell out of use, and its design was forgotten.
Large high-sided sailing ships had always been formidable obstacles for galleys. To low-freeboard oared vessels, the bulkier sailing ships, the cog and the carrackwere almost like floating fortresses, being difficult to board and even harder to capture. Galleys remained useful as warships throughout the entire Middle Ages because of their maneuverability.
Sailing ships of the time had only one mast, usually with just a single, large square sail. This made them cumbersome to steer and it was virtually impossible to sail into the wind direction. Galleys therefore were still the only ship type capable of coastal raiding and amphibious landings, both key elements of medieval warfare.
Soon after conquering Egypt and the Levant, the Arab rulers built ships highly similar to Byzantine dromons with the help of local Coptic shipwrights from former Byzantine naval bases.Brethren, I had the great pleasure to join with the Chairman and Members of Committee of the Masonic Orphans Welfare Committee at their st Annual General Meeting held in the Arthur Square Masonic Centre back on Saturday the 10th March Degree of Master of Science in Engineering and Environmental Management Ronald M.
Salazar, BS I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my faculty advisor, Dr. William Cunningham, for his guidance and support throughout the course of this thesis effort.
I would also like to thank my committee members, Lt Col Sharon Heilmann & . The best opinions, comments and analysis from The Telegraph.
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