Lovingly received day after day by the Church, it is to be preached with dauntless fidelity as "good news" to the people of every age and culture.
Western Culture Morality and values are the constructs most often included in definitions of ethics see Table 1and reasonably so. In America, morality and values derive largely from the religious and philosophical traditions of Western culture.
Members of societies that are built on these traditions tend to agree on many fundamental principles, whether or not those members are themselves affiliated with a formal religion or even aware of their philosophical inheritance.
For example, principles of fairness, charity, and kindness toward others are widely shared, as are prohibitions against theft, murder, lying, or reckless endangerment Hosmer, Not all societies prohibit adultery or incest, although Western cultures do based on Judeo-Christian beliefs.
When one looks at the specifics of applying moral beliefs, however, even the seemingly more universal principles require qualification. For example, most individuals in the Western world would say that murder is wrong. But profound disagreement lurks just below the surface.
Thus even the most uncontroversial of moral standards -- that murder is wrong -- yields to diverse opinion on practical issues and to a dynamic interplay in society of majority-minority views.
In antiquity, determinism vs. Utilitarian philosophy -- the greatest happiness and the least pain for the greatest number -- developed with Bentham and Mill Smart, Karl Marx identified and condemned the engines of oppression in a class-based society Tucker, More recently, Rawlsian theory examined justice related to the needs, duties, and resources of members of society Rawls, The Codification of Morality Laws and government regulations, relatively recent developments of the industrialized world, are in essence the codification of morality Table 3.
A society holds certain values and beliefs and from these creates the laws that more formally govern human affairs. One finds echoes of the Ten Commandments, the Golden Rule 2and lessons from the Old and New Testament throughout the legal systems of Western civilization Hosmer, In the industrialized world, law and morality interlink extensively.
Often law establishes the minimum conduct expected from members of society and few, if any, positive duties Darr, 3. The First Amendment to the Constitution demands that church and state religion and law are kept separate. We believe in the ideals of democracy which accord voice, vote, and basic human rights to every individual.
The rights of an individual crime suspect, rather than those of the victim, are a priority in legal processes, sometimes to the perceived detriment of the larger society. One could argue that the utilitarian principle -- the greatest good for the greatest number -- is occasionally subverted by judgments in favor of the individual by the American legal system.
The Societal Codification of Morality U. The concept of due process, which is central to principles of objectivity, administrative fairness, and human resource management, comes to us from law. Government regulations of health care originate in legislation and are further developed and enforced by designated agents of the government.
Legal protection for whistleblowers exists, but is limited to government-related employment e. Ethical conduct in the U. And as we shall see, there are additional social factors that influence ethical choicemaking. In relation to ethics, laws are a commanding player because they derive from societal consensus about collective morality; hence one cannot separate ethical choice from legal principles.
At this point in our discussion, however, it should also be clear that ethics cannot be distinctly separated from the related domains of culture, religion, philosophy, morality, values, government regulation, or commerce. Throughout evolution, ethics has flowed from yet additional norms governing human behavior.
The Capitalist Ethic The capitalist ethic is a powerful template laid on all human affairs in the U.Jan 26, · PetersNet ratings in parenthesis - (fidelity, resources, usability) Click on the ratings (in parenthesis) for the most current description and rating by PetersNet Sites marked with an * are archived (older) copies from the "Wayback Machine" with more than terrabytes on fileMega Sites.
Moral Relativism. Moral relativism is the view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (for instance, that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others.
It has often been associated with other claims about morality: notably, the thesis that different cultures often exhibit radically different moral. What is Transhumanism? attheheels.com Transhumanism is a way of thinking about the future that is based on the premise that the human species in its current form does not represent the end of our development but rather a comparatively early phase..
Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. Carol Gilligan and the morality of care Kohlberg's and Piaget's theories have come under fire.
Kohlberg's six stages of moral development, for example, have been criticized for elevating Western, urban, intellectual (upper class) understandings of morality, while discrediting rural, tribal, working class, or Eastern moral understandings. RESPECTED HISTORIAN RALF GEORG REUTH ARGUES THAT HITLER may have had a ‘real’ reason to hate the Jews.
Noted for his breadth of knowledge on World Wars I and II and its prominent figures, German historian Reuth has enjoyed much acclaim for his numerous books covering the World Wars era. Drawing. The history of Western ethics Ancient civilizations to the end of the 19th century The ancient Middle East and Asia.
The first ethical precepts must have been passed down by word of mouth from parents and elders, but as societies learned to use the written word, they began to set down their ethical beliefs. These records constitute the first historical evidence of the origins of ethics.