David Ricardo, The brilliant British economist David Ricardo was one the most important figures in the development of economic theory. He articulated and rigorously formulated the " Classical" system of political economy.
From a Marxist perspective Crisis Theories: Underconsumption The most popular explanations for economic crises advanced by Marxists since the death of Engels in are underconsumption, profit squeeze and disproportionality. Profit squeeze theories can be be divided into two sub-theories.
One version puts the blame for crises on a decline in the rate of surplus value caused by the fall in unemployment that occurs during a boom. The other sub-theory, in contrast, sees the rise in the organic composition of capital causing a fall in the rate of profit.
The fall in the rate of profit leads to the crisis. The theory of disproportionality can also be divided into two sub-theories. One puts the emphasis on the anarchy of production.
For example, raw materials might be produced in insufficient amounts as industrial production Underconsumption thesis leading to an economic crisis. The other sub-theory puts the emphasis on the relationship between the two great departments of production, the one that produces means of production called Department I by Marx and the one that produces consumer goods called Department II by Marx.
It is asserted that either Department I produces too much relative to Department II or Department II produces too much relative to Department I and that this leads to a general economic crisis.
The supporters of underconsumption point to a very profound contradiction Underconsumption thesis capitalist production. Under the pressure of competition, the industrial capitalists are obliged to expand production without limit, but at the same time, competition forces them to drive their costs down as far as possible.
This forces the industrial capitalists nowadays all large-scale industrial production is in the hands of corporations that act as collective industrial capitalists to pay the lowest possible wages.
Capitalist overproduction is overproduction of exchange values, not overproduction of use values. A crisis of overproduction of exchange values breaks out when there is still very much an underproduction of use values, especially use values that the workers themselves need. Sismondi, the father of crisis theory The father of the underconsumptionist theory of crises and of crisis theory in general was the Swiss economist Simondi de Sismondi, who lived between and But as the contradictions of the emerging system of industrial capitalism became clear to him, Sismondi broke with economic liberalism.
Marx considered Sismondi, alongside Ricardo, to be the last of the classical economists. According to Marx, after Ricardo and Sismondi there was only vulgar economics 3 on one side and socialist criticism on the other. Sismondi saw that as industrial capitalism was developing, it not only encouraged the unlimited development of production but was steadily impoverishing the mass of the workers, artisans and peasants, who formed the great majority of the population.
The introduction of machinery and the overall growth in the productivity of labor, as well as the ruin of the peasants and small artisan producers, was producing a huge army of unemployed. The unemployed were, in turn, driving down the wages of the employed workers to the barest subsistence.
Sismondi saw that as industrial capitalism developed industrial production without limit it was bound to collide with the limits on effective demand arising from the growing impoverishment of the great majority of the population.
During the s, however, the economic crises that hit industrial Britain could still be explained as arising from special causes, such as the disruption of trade with continental Europe due to the wars between post-revolutionary France and Britain, and then the end of these wars inwhich led to mass unemployment as war production was suddenly curtailed.
Ricardo referred to these phenomena as a sudden change in the channels of trade. Many socialist agitators over the decades have used the theory of underconsumption first developed by Sismondi as their explanation for crises. Therefore, the workers can buy only a portion of the vast mass of commodities that they produce.
The underconsumptionists argue that inevitably the industrial capitalists produce more commodities than the workers can purchase, leading periodically to massive overproduction, factory shutdowns, unemployment and slump—in a word, a general crisis of industrial overproduction. It is certainly true that if capitalist production was production for the needs of the producers-consumers like socialist production is, a general crisis of industrial overproduction would be impossible.
If industrial production under socialism ever rises to the level where all material human wants are fully satisfied, this would not be a crisis. It would mean that the age-old dream of universal abundance had finally been achieved. But capitalist production is not, after all, a system of producing to meet the needs of the producers-consumers, it a system of production for the profit of the capitalists.The theories forming the basis of Keynesian economics were first presented in The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in It was his explanation for the cause of the Great Depression for which he was, deservedly, most well known.
Although Keynesian theories no longer. Underconsumption Theory And Secular Stagnation Thesis () [American Economic Association] on attheheels.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This scarce Author: American Economic Association.
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