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Europe[ edit ] Changes came in the 19th and 20th centuries; for example, for women, the right to equal pay is now enshrined in law. Women traditionally ran the household, bore and reared the children, were nurses, mothers, wives, neighbours, friends, and teachers.
During periods of war, women were drafted into the labor market to undertake work that had been traditionally restricted to men. Following the wars, Women in european history essay invariably lost their jobs in industry and had to return to domestic and service roles. History of women in the United Kingdom The history of Scottish women in the late 19th century and early 20th century was not fully developed as a field of study until the s.
In addition, most work on women before has been published since Several studies have taken a biographical approach, but other work has drawn on the insights from research elsewhere to examine such issues as work, family, religion, crime, and images of women. Because of the late development of the field, much recent work has been recuperative, but increasingly the insights of gender history, both in other countries and in Scottish history afterare being used to frame the questions that are asked.
Future work should contribute both to a reinterpretation of the current narratives of Scottish history Women in european history essay also to a deepening of the complexity of the history of women in late medieval and early modern Britain and Europe.
In Ireland studies of women, and gender relationships more generally, had been rare before ; they now are commonplace with some books and articles in print. Women in the French Revolution French historians have taken a unique approach: The structural discrimination in academia against the subject of gender history in France is changing due to the increase in international studies following the formation of the European Union, and more French scholars seeking appointments outside Europe.
History of German womenWomen in GermanyFeminism in Germanyand History of Germany Before the 19th century, young women lived under the economic and disciplinary authority of their fathers until they married and passed under the control of their husbands.
In order to secure a satisfactory marriage, a woman needed to bring a substantial dowry. In the wealthier families, daughters received their dowry from their families, whereas the poorer women needed to work in order to save their wages so as to improve their chances to wed.
Under the German laws, women had property rights over their dowries and inheritances, a valuable benefit as high mortality rates resulted in successive marriages. Within the educated classes, there was the belief that women needed to be sufficiently educated to be intelligent and agreeable interlocutors to their husbands.
Ap European History DBQ: Women in the scientific revolution Essay Sample. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Scientific Revolution, which was the development of new sciences and technology, and The Age of Enlightenment, which was the so called “age of reason”, had sparked women’s participation in sciences. The History of European Integration The European integration, developed mainly by political scientists, is a story in which visionary leaders and forward-looking nation states engaged in the critical adventure of designing a new Europe. The 17th and 18th centuries saw the embryonic stage of women’s quest for intellectual and social parity with men. The evolution of women’s fight for equal opportunities was bogged down by a long history of stereotyping and condescension.
However, the lower-class women were expected to be economically productive in order to help their husbands make ends meet. The code of social respectability confined upper class and bourgeois women to their homes. They were considered socially and economically inferior to their husbands.
The unmarried women were ridiculed, and the ones who wanted to avoid social descent could work as unpaid housekeepers living with relatives; the ablest could work as governesses or they could become nuns. The bourgeois movement made important contributions to the access of women to education and employment mainly office-based and teaching.
The proletarian movement, on the other hand, developed as a branch of the Social Democratic Party. As factory jobs became available for women, they campaigned for equal pay and equal treatment. In German women won the right to join political parties, and in they were finally granted the right to vote.
The emancipation of women in Germany was to be challenged in following years. Theoretically, the Nazis believed that women must be subservient to men, avoid careers, devote themselves to childbearing and child-rearing, and be helpmates to the traditional dominant fathers in the traditional family.
After Hitler came to power inthe activist women were replaced by bureaucratic women, who emphasized feminine virtues, marriage, and childbirth. As Germany prepared for war, large numbers of women were incorporated into the public sector and, with the need for full mobilization of factories byall women were required to register with the employment office.
Hundreds of thousands of women served in the military as nurses and support personnel, and another hundred thousand served in the Luftwaffeespecially helping to operate the anti-aircraft systems. The Nazi ideology viewed women generally as agents of fertility. Accordingly, it identified the Jewish woman as an element to be exterminated to prevent the rise of future generations.
For these reasons, the Nazis treated women as prime targets for annihilation in the Holocaust. Academia resisted incorporating this specialized field of history, primarily because of the political atmosphere and a lack of institutional support.
Beforehistoriography dealt chiefly with nationalist themes that supported the anti-democratic political agenda of the state. Afteracademia reflected a Soviet model. However, the quality of this scholarship was uneven and failed to take advantage of the methodological advances in research in the West.Impact of the Islamic Invasion on Spain.
The history of Spain reflects the effect of certain cultures and religions on Spanish population, language, traditions and style of life. The History of European Integration The European integration, developed mainly by political scientists, is a story in which visionary leaders and forward-looking nation states engaged in the critical adventure of designing a new Europe.
When the United States entered the European War on April 6, , it marked the first time in the history of the country that regular Army and Navy military nurses served overseas’although without rank’and the first time, women who were not nurses were allowed to enlist in the Navy and Marine Corps.
European women from the Reformation through the Enlightenment.” A course theme and/or approach to history that is not the focus of the essay (such as political, economic, social, cultural, or intellectual history).
EUROPEAN HISTORY SCORING GUIDELINES. WOMEN IN EUROPEAN HISTORY I. Renaissance: • Wealthy women o Querelles des Femmes (“The Problem of Women”) – new debate emerged over women’s nature and their proper role in society (starting with Pisan in the 14 th century); the debate continued for six hundred years.
The role of women in society has greatly evolved. Prior to the emergence of today’s modern world, women were restricted and confined by the norms and dictates of society.